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2 Bells: Related Coast Guard and World History
An open web page consisting of information supplied by ex crew members
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This is a copy of an unknown publication, by Henry Berry ? provided by Homer Compton a TANEY Pearl Harbor Survivor. I feel that it is important and should be part of the USCGC Taney History.
“Why The Pacific War?” by Henry Berry Page 20 to 26
“For fifty years many historians have asked the same question, why was anyone amazed at what Adolf Hitler tried to do? After all, he had outlined all his plans in his book Mien Kampf . It was there in black and white for the whole world to see.
Well in 1936 the Telegraph Press of New York City published
the translation of a Japanese book entitled
Japan Must Fight Britain. Its author was a lieutenant commander in the Japanese Imperial Navy named Tota Ishimaru.
In 1936 Great Britain was assumed to have the strongest navy in the world. It was the British Navy that Japan copied the most when it decided to build the Imperial Fleet. Japan’s dream of a Greater East Asia Empire could not be stopped by the British fleet, or so thought Tota.
He did point out the strong possibility of the United States jumping into such a conflict on the side of the British. He still felt the Japanese could handle both countries in a Pacific war.
Besides, he also felt that America would be inclined to stay neutral in a Japanese-British war. Japan would look to the U.S. for huge amounts of oil and military supplies.
This thought is, of course, a fantasy. But the important theme of the commander’ book is that it maps out Japan’s plans of conquest for Asia.
By 1936 the Japanese military was definitely gaining the upper hand in Tokyo. The cry was ‘Asia for the Asians’. They wanted the ‘round eyes’ no farther in the Pacific than the Aleutian Islands. They already controlled Korea and Formosa. But that was just for openers. In 1931 their plan for conquest really exploded with an extensive invasion of Manchuria.
The Japanese force was called the Kwantung Army. For the next decade this army waged war first against the Manchurians, then against the Chinese. It grew immensely powerful and much to the chagrin of the Tokyo government almost a law unto itself.
A Japanese officer, while serving in Manchuria, would grow in stature to such an extent that his fame became known through out the Empire. The troops called him ‘the Razor’ due to his uncanny ability to slice through details to get things done. His name was General Hideki Tojo.
Because of the Kwantung Army’s aggression in Manchuria, Japan received sanctions by the League of Nations. Their emperor was embarrassed. But the Army thought it was a joke. Yosuke Masuoka, the Japanese delegate to the League, packed his bags and quickly returned home. This was just the first blow to the League of Nations during the 1930’s. The grip of the military was tightening. There was resistance in Tokyo, but it lacked the power and the resolve to stand up to the Army.
The next move concerned an incident at the Marco Polo Bridge near Peking. It started with a firefight between Japanese and Chinese troops on July 7, 1937.
Who fired first? Who knows? But on July 26 a Japanese ultimatum was delivered to the Chinese insisting that Chinese troops withdraw from the Peking area at once. Another Chinese versus Japanese war had started. It would not end until August of 1945 when Japan surrendered.
One world leader who was infuriated by the Japanese action was FDR. In a speech in Chicago he called for a quarantine of all aggressor nations. What could be considered Japan’s reply to FDR’s speech occurred on December 12, 1937.
The U.S.S. Panay, a gunboat, had gone up the Yangtze River toward Nanking. Its mission was to help evacuate American nationals from a war zone. In order to make sure the Panay was easily recognized as an American ship, it was flying an oversize American flag.
Nevertheless, a wave of Japanese bombers descended on the ship. It was quickly sunk. To make matters worse the Japanese pilots then strafed the swimming American sailors. Before it was over, four blue jackets of the American Navy were killed.
Tokyo may have been as shocked as Washington but not the Army in the field. The Japanese Air Force colonel responsible for the Panay attack admitted several years later that this was no mistaken identity. The pilots knew exactly what they were doing.
Of course there were apologies coming from all over Japan. There was no question but that Tokyo did not want war.
Neither did the U.S. With an army the size of the Netherlands’, America was in no shape to go to war with Japan. The President even sent a letter to the emperor telling him to put a bridle on the runaway cannon the Japanese had in China. The letter arrived in Tokyo, but it is doubtful it ever reached the emperor. After the war the U.S. Army had a chance to check all the emperor’s correspondence. The letter was nowhere to be found.
But what happened a few weeks after the sinking of the Panay was to show the world what they were dealing with when the Japanese Army captured Nanking. Back in the Middle Ages when an army captured a city, the victorious army was allowed to plunder the town.
And this is just what happened. The Rape of Naking belonged in A.D. 900, not in 1937. But it happened and over two hundred thousand civilians were massacred in a bloody orgy that lasted over two months. By the start of 1938 the average American was disgusted with the Japanese in general.
I was twelve years of age at the time. It seems to me that
the four dead sailors from the Panay were remembered by lads like me than
the so-called adults. There were a series of cards you could buy
with bubble gum. They were called War Cards. I had cards showing
tied-up Chinese prisoners being bayoneted by Japanese soldiers.
There was another card entitled ‘The Rape of Nanking’. But the most valuable card of all was entitled ‘The Panay goes Down’. This picture showed a half-submerged American gunboat going under with the American flag still waving above the water. That card alone was enough to sour me personally on the Japanese of fifty years ago. At this time Japan was the epitome of what happens when a country comes under the iron hand of a military dictatorship.
During this period there were many people in Tokyo who were trying to halt the march of the military toward war. But it was like trying to stop a flood.
In 1924 the United States had passed an immigration law that the American mind against Imperial Germany. made it almost impossible for a Japanese to immigrate to the United States. Losing face in the Orient is a serious insult. Japan lost a lot of face when our government as much as said that their citizens were not wanted in the U.S.
There was a group in the French Air Force called the Lafayette Flying Corps in 1916. It was mainly made up of American college lads flying for the French. A glamorous lot, they received great press in the U.S. The dashing airmen played their part in the propaganda drive to turn
Well, in 1940 a former U.S. Army pilot and stunt flyer started his famous Flying Tigers. His name was Claire Lee Chennault. He drew the same type of idealistic and adventurous young Americans to his group that had gone to France in 1916. Using revolutionary flying tactics developed by Chennault, the Flying Tigers were soon knocking down Japanese Zeros like kingpins. Japan protested to Washington, but this time it was the Japanese who ran into the blank stare. These excellent fliers remained a thorn in the Japanese side until the end of the war.
Well, as 1941 progressed so did hostilities between Japan and U.S. As a result of Roosevelt’s battle with the American First Committee, America’s relations with Japan never got the press that the U.S. relations with Nazi Germany did.
But when it was all said and done, it got down to one word. OIL, The Japanese Imperial Fleet ran on oil. In 1941 Japan was buying most of its oil from the United States. In July of 1941 Washington froze all Japanese assets in the U.S. This would eventually make it impossible for Japan to continue its all-out war of aggression in China and the rest of Asia.
But the Japanese had anticipated this act. Admiral Nagumo had designed a fast-moving plan to use the whole Imperial Fleet to capture the East Indies oil-producing islands before the U.S. Pacific Fleet could get out of Pearl Harbor.
By the time the U.S. had arrived near Japan, the Japanese fleet, with its ten aircraft carries, could destroy the U.S. fleet in the Japan’s home waters. This had been mapped out in the late 1930’s. But the most prestigious man in the Japanese Navy, Isoroku Yamamoto, had other plans. He had visions of the bulk of the Japanese fleet being in the East Indies and the U.S. fleet coming over and finishing off what was left around Japan.
Anyway, Yamamoto had spent many years in the United States. He had even taken a two-year course at Harvard University.
Above all, he studied the American people. He knew not only of the mighty industrial power of the United States but also the pride Americans took in their country. It wasn’t an intensely paternalistic pride such as the Germans and the Japanese had; it was a much lower-key pride. But it was there and the Americans would fight for it.
So, Yamamoto came up with a different plan. The Japanese would load up six of their ten aircraft carriers. They would come at Pearl Harbor from the North on a Sunday morning in December. The damage done to Pear Harbor would be immense.
Yamamoto knew a surprise strike at Pearl Harbor was so revolutionary that the Americans wouldn’t even consider it. And with a few exceptions he was right.
It was the same with the Japanese admirals. Would they or would they not fight the United States? This was definite; if the U.S. shut off their oil, they would have no choice but to fight.
There was one-man in the government who at least questioned the wisdom of going to war with the U.S. His name was Shigenori Togo, The foreign minister. After being told that as negotiations had broken down, the only choice was war, he commented: ‘Just because we can no longer negotiate with the Americans, must we bomb them?’ For that remark alone he should have been given a medal.
So be it. On October 17, 1941 General Hideki Tojo, Japan’s war minister, replaced Prince Konoye as prime minister. He retained his position as War Minister. Now, both the civilian government and the military were under one man.
Tojo was a career military man in the best samurai tradition. However, he was dedicated to the Japanese plans for expansion in Asia. While men like Tojo and Yamamoto were completely honest men, they, like most Japanese leaders, firmly believed that the Japanese people were the chosen people of the East, if not the world. They were borne to lead, or so these men thought.
So, while many historians think that the appointment of Tojo played a big part in starting the war, plans for the Pearl Harbor attack were made long before he got the bib job.
So, with all the meetings and hoopla, the question of peace or war came down to one controversy. It was like teenagers playing chicken.
Japan said, ‘You must sell us oil’ America replied, ‘We will sell you oil as long as you start withdrawing your troops from French Indochina’.
The whole thing brings up a moral question. Did the United States have the right to tell Japan what she must do?
On the other hand, did Japan have the right to tell the U.S. to whom it must sell its oil? Take your pick.
An interesting aside. Would Japan have taken on the U.S., Great Britain, and the Netherlands if the Netherlands had not been conquered by Germany and if England wasn’t fighting Germany for its life? “
Below is some stories by and about Warren Hartmen,a Taney Pearl Harbor Survivor who was the author of many stories under 4 Bells.
FREEDOM IS NOT FREE
When not participating in parades, CGCVA member Warren Hartman spends much of his time speaking at schools and churches about patriotism. In regard to many of America’s youth he unfortunately doesn’t see patriotism as something high on their agenda and he urges all vets to get out and talk to the kids. And adults, about the high price of freedom. He reminds his audiences of that cost, citing the approximate death toll in our nation’s major wars: Civil War (600,000) WW1 (116,000); WW2 (400,000); Korea (34,000) and Vietnam (58,000). A total of 1.2 million deaths as well as uncountable millions of Americans crippled, wounded and missing. Truly ...freedom is not free. (From the Quarterdeck Log, Coast Guard Combat Veterans Association)
Sequel to Freedom:
Patriotism was born in America with the Pilgrims landing at Plymouth Rock. Their first act was thanking God for deliverance from bondage, to a new land. The ensuring years were difficult and the Revolutionary War of 1775 found ill equipped colonist facing an invasion of British soldiers and outnumbered. By 1783 after years of bloody battles the British withdrew to England. Love and zeal of land united the colonists to fight and win against overwhelming odds.
During WW2 America faced overwhelming odds from dedicated enemies, but again patriotism bonded us together into an invincible force. Since those years two unpopular wars erupted, polluting the minds of youth away from love of country with respect for law.
Can we change the way of youths thinking about democracy and freedom?
Can we change the way of youths thinking about democracy and freedom? By the next generation through parents, teachers, and GI’s speaking at schools, we hope to instill patriotism in the hearts of youth. They are the leaders of tomorrow.
When called “Shallow Water Sailor” I recalled:
Pearl Harbor anchorage, 6 fathoms.
Guadelcanal, AP’s offloaded 10 fathoms.
Utile Atoll, available anchorage, 20 fathoms.
Solomon Islands, Grounded in Typhoon.
New Guinea, LCI offloaded infantry, 1 fathom.
New Britain, we beached our LST’s.
Normandy APA’s anchored in 30 fathoms.
Iwo Jima, AKA’s off loaded ordinance, 15 fathoms.
Just to name a few.
Amphibious Force USCG
I am America’s Symbol
Of our priceless heritage.
Freedom of Speech and religion.
I represent love of country.
Dedicated to the sacrifices of our Armed Forces.
A friend to the downtrodden, thruout the world.
I am proud when some one salutes me.
I am sad when degraded, or burnt.
I am caretaker of our constitution.
I fly high over the land of the free.
I am the flag of United States of America.
BIRTH OF FREEDOM
The Revolutionary War of 1775 found our Colonist poorly
equipped and outnumbered against the invading British, but through love
and zeal of country, Patriotism was born. We should strive to recapture
In 1940 my decision to join the U.S. Coast Guard was giddied by the humanitarian services it performed.
When I enlisted my Service had 35,000 personnel but by 1945 we had grown to 268,000 , manning 1500 ships, boats and stations through out the world war zones. The high price of the Civil war was 600,000 killed, WW1 116,000 killed, WW2 400,000 killed, Korea 36,000 killed, Vietnam 58,000 killed totaling 1.2 million, -- uncountable millions more were missing, crippled, or wounded. – The price of Freedom is America’s most expensive commodity, paid in blood!
Researching the media revealed that patriotism among our youth was at an all time low and the 60’s were Americans most demoralizing decade, along with two unpopular wars and the introduction of drugs.
By the 90’s concerned veterans began speaking at schools and organizations to instill Patriotism into youth once again: Perhaps a generation of time is needed!
On 7 December 1999, the Navy commissioned the U.S.S. Pearl Harbor and I was impressed by the inscription on her brass nameplate which read ‘FREEDOM IS NOT FREE”
I began public speaking and carried my 2x4 foot Freedom sign in four parades. Can we change youth’s hearts?
We also faced dedicated enemies as did our forefathers, there history, but bonded together saying “Land of the Free” – with help of teachers, churches, parents, and GI’s. Perhaps love and zeal of country cane be reborn.
Our youths are tomorrow’s leaders. – May God bless our cause.
(This geography information was on a mimeograph
sheet probably provided by Homer Compton.
I would guess it was for general information for the crew)
Okinawa Guntoconsists of
Okinawa Shima and numerous smaller islands. It is centrally located in
a chain of islands which run between Kyushu to the northeast, which is
the southern most part of the mainland of Japan, Formosa (Taiwan). It is
300 miles to Formosa, 450 to Shanghai, and 360 to Kyushu. The chain
of islands of which the Okinawa Gunto is a part is known as Nansei Shoto,
or Ryukyu Islands.
The population of the Okinawa group in 1940 was 463,000 Although the people are racially a mixed group, they have the same basic characteristics as the Japanese. The languages are Ryukyu and Japanese; both derived from the same archaic tongue.
Economically, the Okinawa group is of little importance. However, there are exports of marine products, meat, and vegetables. These exports are primarily to the Japanese mainland.
Militarily, the Okinawa groups I of great strategic importance inasmuch as it is a good stepping-stone between Japan and her possessions in Southeast Asia.
Health conditions are poor. All drinking water must be treated. Fly and Mosquito control are necessary. Additional pests area mites, rats, wild boar, and four or five species of poisonous snakes.
Okinawa Shima, the main island of the Okinawa proper, is 60 miles long and 3 to 10 miles wide. The northern 2/3 of the island is rugged and mountainous, and about 80% heavily wooded. The southern 1/3 of the island is generally rolling hills.
About 80% of this portion are cultivated with sugar cane and sweet potatoes.
Numerous towns and villages are present in the southern part of Okinawa Shima, Naha, the largest city of the entire Nansei Shot o, (Ryukyu Islands) has a population of about 65,000. The only other principal city is Shuri, with a population of 17,000. Other localities on the southern part of the island with 5,000 or more population area Itoman and Yonabaru. In the northern part of the island are the cities of Okaneku (Population. 13,000), and Togughi, (Pollution 20,000)
All the town of the Ryukyo chain is provincial in the sense of limited public utilities and lower standards of living than in Japan.
Roads in the Okinawa group vary from 16-foot highways on Okinawa Shima, to rough trails on the minor islands. The road system on Okinawa Shire is the most developed. Most roads however, are narrow. There are some masonry and concrete bridges, but they are now well constructed.
Communications are well developed on the main island of Okinawa Shima. There are a number of radio stations (prewar), used for communications with the Japanese mainland. There are no broadcasting stations there are telephone and telegraph facilities between all the larger cities on Okinawa Shima.
Underwater cable facilities are available for communication between Okinawa Shima and all the other major islands of the group, and to Kyushu, Formosa, and Yap Island in the Carolines.
There is a railroad the full length of the island, connecting the major cities.
There are a number of airfields among the islands, 4 or 5 of which are on Okinawa Shima. The largest is at the Capitol City of Naha, and the only one with extensive repair facilities (peacetime).
The climate of the Ryukyu Islands is temperate. The winds are from the north in winter, northeast in spring and fall and from the south in the summer.
Rainfall is heavy throughout the year, totaling about 85 inches to 100 inches a year. Moderate temperatures prevail and average from 60 degrees in the winter to 83 degrees in the summer. The extremes are 40 to 90 degrees. Humidity is high throughout the year. About 16 to 20 thunderstorms hit the islands each year, were occurring chiefly in the afternoons.
Typhoons occur about 12 times each year. Freeing in the Okinawa group occurs extremely seldom.
I’ve been chipping on the TANEY
All the live long day
I’ve been painting on the TANEY
Just to chase the rust away
Don’t you hear that whistle blowing?
Rise up and leave the hay
Don’t you hear the Bosun shouting?
Sailor its break of day
I’ve been working on the TANEY
All the live long day
I’ve been working on the TANEY
Just to pass the war away
Don’t you hear the whistles blowing?
The war is almost done
Don’t you hear the sailor shouting?
Our lives has just begun
copied by vern_toler May 20001
BRIEF HISTORY OF U.C. COAST GUARD
During World War 2 our personnel grew to near 300,000 and we manned
some fifteen hundred
ships and stations in all theaters of war. The types of ships varied from 30,000 ton attack transports
to 5 ton assault crafts requiring many new skills to learn.
Our major duties included are:
1. "Ocean Stations" maintaining an assigned sea area usually
consisting of a 200 square mile
block to patrol and aid in the rescue of ships of aircraft in distress.
2.: Law Enforcement" this includes all federal steatites prohibiting entrance of illegal aliens and
3. Search and Rescue Stations" search and rescue stations were manned 24 hours a day by ships
and aircraft in the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Arctic and the Caribbean.
4. Merchant Marine Inspections" this was for hazards, the licensing of ships and officers, and for
determine sea worthiness.
5. Coast Guard Auxiliary" This included training of some 17,900 civilian volunteers for motor
boat inspections covering all 50- states and also including inland waters.
6. "Port Security" Included the protection of harbors, vessels, and docks and also the inspection
of hazardous cargo.
7. "Aids to Navigation" the maintenance of lighthouses, buoys and LORAN stations.
8. "Military Readiness" involves drills, gunnery, seamanship, land regulations.
9. "Ice Breaking" included keeping the sea lanes open and iceberg surveillance in shipping lanes:
also the export of expeditions.
10. "Oceanography" the enforcement of water pollution laws and the gathering of ocean data.
During World War 2, we crewed 350 major and
minor vessels of the Navy, including
destroyer escorts, landing crafts, tankers, troop transports, repair and cargo ships, gun boats
and tenders. Other vessels included 288 Army ships and tugs along with over 600
Coast Guard cutters, fire boats and patrol craft.
During the Normandy invasion, sixty of our
83' picket boasts saved over 600 lives. On
December 7, 1941 we had about 400 personnel covering the Hawaiian Sea frontier along with
one major cutter, two large tenders, two rescue vessels, five patrol boats and one fire tug. Our
peace time surveillance covered an area west to Midway , south to Samoa, and the Society
group on the line islands covering 5800 sea miles.
In 1942 we started establishing Search and
Rescue stations on land and on the sea. LORAN
stations (Long Range Navigation Signal) also were installed and by 1945-46 stations were in
service. They covered Johnson, Midway, Ulithi, Iwo Jima and Yap Islands. By 1960, the
LORAN chain had stretched to Iceland, Ireland, Gibraltar, Grand Banks, and Japan. This low
frequency transmitter sends out a homing signal up to 800 miles by night and 1,600 miles by
day. This was twice the distance and accuracy of previous systems and was a highly guarded
secret. Only allied ships and planes had special equipment to receive this signal and was a real
blessing for navigation in bad weather.
Reflecting back to 1790. Alexander Hamilton
officially established the "Revenue Cutter
Service" hoping to halt the slaves, pirates and law breakers, This was the start of today's
Coast Guard, but the real beginning started in England in the year 1711 when they developed
fast sailing cutters for law enforcement, these were privately lowed and manned by civilians.
This often led to bloody combat against law breakers. Historically we copied their uniform,
terminology and customs.
By 1792, our American armed cutters had well
trained uniformed crews and a growing
deterrent against pirates who plundered American merchant ships. By 1830, our U.S. Cutter
Service had a large fleet of ships of up to 170 feet and well gunned, serving the wars of 1812
to the present.
By 1776, our U.S. Navy was officially born
through Congress and around 1802 had a fleet of
49 vessels including the "USS Constitution" with 36 guns that greatly aided in the control of the
seas. In 1915, Congress renamed the U.S. Coast Guard" and we took over the U.S.
Lighthouse Service and the ships that had been established 50 years previously.
Hundreds of civilian yachts and crafts were
loaned to us for the duration of the war, which we
armed and manned. Some 11,000 women enlisted (named S.P.A.R.S.) During the 40's
serving in many capacities and women now are still a permanent part of this service.
Beach patrols saw horse mounted armed Coast
Guard personnel with K-9 dogs
encompassing America's shores during WW , Iceberg surveillance by cutters were replaced
by satellite in the 70's and manned lighthouse keepers were replaced by automation.
Lifeboat surf stations have gradually been
replaced since the 50'd, by air bases. The Air Wing
of the Coast Guard had increased ten-fold since the 50's , having pioneered helicopter
rescues. Their fixed wing fleets are invaluable with the inset of drug abatement.
We have seen duty and many coast of the world since 1790
The following is copied from the booklet provided at the (cover
page 1) "Decommissioning Ceremony, December 7, 1986 Portsmouth Virginia
(Copied from ""The Coast Guard Reservist" published November 1996 by vern.)
The Coast Guard in Vietnam
This article and charts from three main sources.
The Coast Guard in Vietnam by PA1 Paul Powers, USCG Gung-Ho. November
The United States Coast Guard in South East Asia during the Vietnam Conflict,
by Lt. Eugent N. Tulicyh, USCG, USCG Historical Monograph Program, USCG Public Affairs Division (G-CP-1/H), Washington, D.C. 20593-0001, 1986
This is the Coast Guard, by H.R. Kaplan and LCDR James F. Hunt, USCG.
Vietnam is usually remembered as a war fought jungles and rice paddies. Tut there was another conflict as well, a sailor's war, much of it fought from the decks of United States Coast Guard Cutters. The Coast Guard played a significant role in securing Vietnam's 1,200-mile coastline. Some 8,000 Coast Guardsmen and 56 different combatant vessels were assigned to duty there. Coast Guardsmen destroyed enemy supply ships, supported ground units, rescued American and other friendly forces, and performed many more duties, including carrying out humanitarian roles which are common to the Coast Guard. Yet The Coast Guard's involvement in Vietnam Was is still little known. So this year, as America salutes its servicemen and women on Veterans Day, We pause to remember in paraticular our Coast Guardsmen who served in a land thousands of miles from home, Vietnam, roughly three decades ago.
Early in the Vietnam War, The Vit Cong and North
Vietnamese obtained their supplies in many ways. Forces allied with the
Republic of South Vietnam could not stop the enemy's flow of men, arms
During February 1965, A U.S. Army pilot flying over Vung Ro Bay near Qui Nhon noticed an "island" moving slowly from one side of the bay to the other. Upon closer observation, he saw the "island " was a carefully camouflaged ship.
Intelligence sources determined the ship was North Vietnamese and engaged in supplying enemy forces. Air strikes were called in and the vessel was sunk.
A tight security and surveillance system was necessary. Thi would be no easy chore with 1,200 miles of coastline to patrol and over 60,000 junks and sampans to control. To provide this coverage, the Coastal Surveillance Force was established in March 1965, Called Market Time and after the native boats using the waterways for fishing and marketing, this task force provided a single command to integrate sea, air, and land-based units and coordinate U.S. Navy, Coast Guard and South Vietnamese naval units.
The backbone of the Coast Guard Fleet was the 82-foot patrol boats (WBP). Known Squadron One, 26 of them saw action. The 82-footer's main job was choking off the enemy's sea borne supplies. Much of the action took place near the border, Division 12, out of Danang in the north, patrolled the 17th parallel. Division 11, based at An Thoi in the south, graded the border between South Vietnam and Cambodia. At first, these patrol boats formed a barrier from the shore straight out into the ocean. They were to cut off the enemy as they tried to enter South Vietnamese waters. But the North Vietnamese sent their supplies in large steel-hulled vessels far out to sea and beat the blockade by going around it.
So, the Coast Guard and Navy changed tactics. Rather than trying to catch the enemy as they entered Southern waters, the Coast Guard and Navy decided to hit them as they approached the drop-off points. The boats formed a picket line along the shoreline and covered the area with radar. When a target was spotted, they would attack.
A year after the new defensive scheme was set up, enemy smuggling was stopped cold. In desperation, the communists tried a tactical change of their own. In February 1968, The North Vietnamese ran four large trawlers south all at once, in the hope of getting something through. Three were destroyed, and one retreated. After that, sea-born smuggling was largely carried out in small sampans.
The patrol boats also worked with the Navy SEAL's and reacon units. They also gave emergency support to Special Forces camps, transported personnel, evacuated wounded and provided navl-gunfire support. About two years in Operation Market Time, naval operations were extended further off-shore and expanded into the Gulf of Thailand.
Market Time units stopped many enemy vessels carrying supplies and men. The success of the operation forced the enemy to rely on the Ho Chi Minh Trail to transport supplies. As many of the trawler "kills" were in southern Vietnam near the Ca Mau Peninsula, the enemy hd to carry supplies over an extraordinary long distance.
As time went on, the Coast Guard was asked to increase its support and did so by providing five high-endurance cutters ranging in size from 255 to 378 fleet. Coast Guard Squadron Three was born. The large cutters kept their peacetime white paint job instead of taking a coat of gray, like the patrol boats. They were quickly nicknamed "White Ghost" by the Viet Cong
Shortly after their arrival, Squadron Three ships began battling the Viet Cong. The cutter Rush, working with an Australian destroyer, brought its guns to the aid of a small Special Forces camp in the village of new Song Ong Doc. The village, located in the middle of Viet Cong-held territory, was being overrun. Gunfire from the two ships drove off the attackers and left 64 Viet Cong dead. Like the patrol boats, the large cutters were multi-mission ships. hey supported amphibious assaults and gave logistical support for Coast Guard patarol vessels and the Navy PFC's (Patrol Craft Fast).
In addition to the patrol boats a nd high endurance
cutters, 12 Coast Guard aviators flew in Vietnam between 1968 and 1967.
They flew with the Air Forces as part of a service exchange program out
of Tuy Hua and Da Nang, Vietnam, as well as from Thailand and the Philippines.
Helicopter pilots flew Air Force HH-3s (known as the Jolly Green Giants) and later HH-53s, while fixed wing pilots flew Air Force C-130s. These aviators flew hundreds of rescue missions over enemy-infested jungles. Their actions kept a lot off pilots out of prison camps.
One of the Coast Guard's pilots was Lt. Jack Rittichier, who served as a pilot with the Air Force's 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron. He was the first Coast Guard combat casualty in Vietnam. --- killed in a mountainous region west of Danang, while attempting to rescue a downed U.S. fighter pilot. Rittichier's helicopter came under hostile enemy fire and crashed in a ball of flame. A hanger at Coast Guard Air Station Detroit at Selfridge Air National Guard Base, Mich., is named in Ritticher's honor.
Other Support Roles
Along with their combat role, Coast Guardsmen played
an essential support mission. Coast Guard Port Ssecuritymen a Reserve-only
rate, were on hand as experts for safe loading and unloading of ammunition.
Explosives Loading Detachments (ELD teams) were also set up. With
one officer and seven enlisted men, they could stop any U.S. flag vessel
from loading or unloading any cargo, and basically had carte blanch to
enforce safety regulations. EDT teams encountered their share of bizarre
and deadly situations as they struggled to keep the harbors from blowing
up. Fire was a constant enemy. Vietnams families living aboard ammunition
barges cooked with open flames, while both Vietnamese and American stevedores
would smoke as they unloaded the cargoes.
Enemy attack was a constant threat. In February 1968, a merchant ship offloading took nine reciolless-rifle hits at Ca Lai. Fire started immediately. ELD team, battling against time, rushed onto the burning ship, charged the hoses, and dowsed the fire before the ship exploded.
Merchant Marine Detail personnel helped keep the merchant vessels sailing by providing investigative and judicial services, and diplomacy. They served the merchant sailor both float and ashore.
Other Coast Guardsmen were also assigned to keeping the harbors safe. Before ships could reach the docks, they had to safely navigate into the harbors. Coast Guard buoy tenders marked the channels to help keep the traffic moving and replaced batteries used in the lighthouses along the coast Long Range Aids to Navigation (LORAN) stations were set up and manned by the Cost Guard. The stations sent out electronic signals to help mariners and aviators fix their positions.
Lifesavers At Heart
Perhaps the most intangible, but no less important
item a Coast Guardsman brought with him from the Unites States was his
humanity. Lifesavers at heart, they never left that behind, even
in combat. Coast Guardsmen performed many medical missions but also gave
of themselves to Vietnamese program was phased in. The 26 WPBs and
several large high-endurance cutters were turned over to the South Vietnamese.
They became the core of their Navy.
By the time they left, Coast Guard cutters had cruised over 5.5 million miles, participated in nearly 6,000 naval gunfire missions, and boarded nearly 250,000 junks and sampans.
The services main job was to dry up the enemy supply routes --- which they did. With Coast Guardsmen guarding the coast, and enemy junk had only a 10-percent chance of slipping through. A steel-hull vessel had no chance at all. Not a bad job for the low-key warrior of the United States Coast Guard.
(the article contained several pictures, captions only below)
Lt. Robert Nelson of CGC Point Glover, shows recovered riffles and ammo from a Viet Cong Junk, Sep... 1965.
Coast Guard 82 foot patrol craft of Squadron One, Division 12, arrive in formation at Saigon, South Vietnam. Insert above CGC Basswood works a buoy as Vietnamese fishermen ply the waters near Vung Tau.
CGC Point Comfort's BMC Green F. Treat fires an 81 mm mortar at suspected Viet Cong staging area, one mile behind An Thoe, Plu Quoe Island. Also shown area CS2 Lee Roy Bradshaw, Jr., left and GM2 Edward J. Hanson, right.
Coast Guardsman discuss inspection of the junks with the Vietnamese Liaison Officer.
Five cutters of Squadron Three assigned to "Market Time" coastal surveillance in South Vietnam, shown after arriving at Subic Bay, Philippines, Aug. 4, 1967. Left to right: Half Moon, Yakutat, Gresham, Barataria, Bering Strait.
(the article had three charts shown below)
Coast Guard Squadron One
82-foot patrol boats assigned
Cutter name Date of Turnover
Point Banks (WPB 82327)
26 May 1970
Point Clear (WPB 82315) 15 Seep. 1969
Point Comfort (WPB 82317) 17 Nov. 1969
Point Garnet (WPB 82310) 16 May 1969
Point Glover (WPB 82307) 14 Feb. 1970
Point Grey (WPB 82324) 14 July 1970
Point Marone (WPB 82331) 15 Aug. 1970
Point Mast (WPB 82316) 16 June 1970
Point Young (WPB 82303) 16 March 1970
Point Arden (WPB 82309)
14 Feb. 1970
Point Caution (WPB 82301) 29 April 1970
Point Dume (WPB 82325) 14 Feb. 1970
Point Ellis (WPB 82330) 9 Dec. 1996
Point Gammon (WPB 82328) 11 Nov. 1969
Point Lomas (WPB 82321) 26 May 1970
Point Orient (WPB 82319) 14 July 1970
Point Welcome (WPB 82329) 29 Apr. 1970
Point Cypress (WPB 82326)
15 Aug. 1970
Point Grace (WPB 82323) 16 June 1970
Point Hudson (WPB 82322) 11 Dec. 1970
Point Jefferson (WPB 82306) 21 Feb. 1970
Point Kennedy (WPB 82320) 16 March 1970
Point League (WPB 82304) 16 May 1969
Point Partridge (WPB 82305) 27 March 1970
Point Slocum (WPB 82313) 11 Dec. 1969
Point White (WPB 82308) 12 Jan. 1970
Squadron One Statistics
(27 May 1965 --- 15 Aug. 1970)
Miles Cursed .............................................4,215,116
Vessels Inspected ..........................................283,527
Naval Gunfire Support Missions .........................4,461
Enemy Killed/Wounded-in-Action ......................1,055
Coast Guard Wounded-in Action ............................59
Coast Guard Killed-in-Action ...................................7
* All WPBs listed here were
turned over to the South Vietnamese government as part of Vietnamization.
Coast Guardsmen Killed in Action in Southeast Asia
Name Hometown Rank/Rating Age Date of Death Panel/Line
David Charles Brostom -- Los Altos, Calif. LTJG 25 08/11/66 09E/126
Jerry Phillips Corpus Christ, Texas -- EN2 (Engineman) -- 27 08/11/66 09E/128
Jack Columbus Ritticher -- Barberton, Ohio Lt 34 06/09/68 58/W014
Heriberto Segovia Hernandez--San Antonio, Texas --FN (Fireman) 20 12/05/68 58W/014
Morris Sanpsom Beeson Pitkins, La ENC (Engineman) 37 03/22/69 28W/008
Michael Harris Painter Moscow, Idaho EN1 (Engineman) 26 08/08/69 20W/115
Michael Ward Kirkpatrick Gainesville, Fla. LTJG 25 08/09/69 20W/199
note--Panel/Line refers to position on Vietnam Veterans Memorial,
Coast Guard Squadron Three
High Endurance Cutters Assigned
Cutter Name Date of Deployment
Barataria (WHEC 381) 4 May 67 ------- 25 Dec 67
Half Moon (WHEC 387) 4 May 67 ------- 29 Dec 67
Yakuta (WHEC 380) 4 May 67 ------- 1 Jan. 68
Gresham (WHEC 387) 4 May 67 ------- 28 Jan. 68
Bering Strait (WHEC 382) 4 May 67 ------- 18 Feb. 68
Duane (WHEC 33) 4 Dec. 67 --------28 July 68
Androscoggin (WHEC 68) 4 Dec. 67 ---------4 Aug. 68
Campbell (WHEC 32) 14 Dec. 67 ---------12 Aug. 68
Minnetonka (WHEC 67) 5 Jan. 68 --------- 29 Sep. 68
Winona (WHEC 65) 25 Jan. 68 ----------17 Oct. 67
Bibb (WHEC 31) 4 July 68 ----------28 Feb. 69
Ingham (WHEC 35) 16 July 68 --------- 3 Apr. 69
Owasco (WHEC 39) 23 July 68 ---------21 Mar. 69
Wachusett (WHEC 44) 10 Sep. 68 ------- 1 June 69
Winnebago (WHEC 40) 20 Sep. 68 ------- 19 July 69
Spencer (WHEC 36) 11 Feb. 69 ------- 30 Sep. 69
Mendota (WHEC 69) 28 Feb. 69 ------- 3 Nov. 69
Sebago (WHEC 42) 2 March 69 ---- 16 Nov. 69
TANEY (WHEC 37) 14 May 69 ------- 31 Jan. 70
Klamath (WHEC 66) 7 July 69 -------- 3 April 70
Hamilton (WHEC 715) 1 Nov. 69 -------- 25 Nov. 70
Dallas (WHEC 716) 3 Nov. 69 --------- 19 June 70
Chase (WHEC 718) 6 Dec. 69 -------- 28 May 70
Mellon (WHEC 717) 31 Mar 70 ------- 2 July 70
Pontchartrain (WHEC 70) 9 May 70 ---------- 3 Sep. 70
Sherman (WHEC 720) 22 April 70 -------- 25 Dec. 70
Bering Strait (WHEC 382) 17 May 70 --------- 31 Dec. 70 ++ +
Yakutat (WHEC 380) 17 May 70 ----------31 Dec. 70 ++ +
Rush (WHEC 723) 28 Oct. 70 ---------- 15 July 71
Morgenthau (WHEC 722) 6 Dec. 70 -------- 31 July 71
Castle Rock (WHEC 383)
9 July 71 ------------21 Dec. 71 +
Cook Inlet (WHEC 384) 2 Jul. 71 ---------- 21 Dec. 71 +
Basswood (WLB 388) . Blackhaw (WLB 390) Ironwood (WLB 297) Planetree (WLB 307)
Nettle (WLB 169)
Squadron Three Statistics
(4 April 1967 -- 31 Jan. 1972)
Miles Cruised ------------------------------------------------1,292,094
Vessels Inspected -----------------------------------------------50,000
Personnel Detained -------------------------------------------------138
Naval Gunfire Support Missions -----------------------------------1,368
Enemy Killed/wounded-in-action ------------------------------------722
+ Turned over to the South Vietnamese government.
++ Second deployment.
Last updated: 8 October 1996
Comments: Underwater Science Program
Copyright 1996, The Trustees of Indiana University.
U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard
Vessels at Peal Harbor
on December 07, 1941
by Jack McKillop
everyone has heard of the battleship Arizona but few know that
there were a total of 145 Coast Guard and Navy vessels in the waters of Oahu,
Territory of Hawaii on 7 December 1941. The names and designations of the
145 vessels and the eventual fate of each vessel, where known, is detailed
names prefaced with USCGC (US Coast Guard Cutter) or USS
(United States Ship) were commissioned ships. All others were in service.
USS Arizona, BB-39: sunk 7 Dec 41; U.S. National Memorial
at Pearl Harbor
USS California, BB-44: sold for scrap 7-59
USS Maryland, BB-46: sold for scrap 7-59
USS Nevada, BB-36: sunk in weapons test 7-48
USS Oklahoma, BB-37: capsized 7 Dec 41; raised 1943 but not
repaired; parted tow line enroute San Francisco
and sank 5-47
USS Pennsylvania, BB-38: scuttled off Kwajalein 2-48
USS Tennessee, BB-43: sold for scrap 7-59
USS West Virginia, BB-48: sold for scrap 8-59
HEAVY CRUISERS (2)
USS New Orleans, CA-32: sold for scrap 9-59
USS San Francisco, CA-38: sold for scrap 9-59
LIGHT CRUISERS (6)
USS Detroit, CL-8: sold for scrap 2-46
USS Helena, CL-50: sunk in Kula Gulf, 7-43
USS Honolulu, CL-48: sold for scrap 11-59
USS Phoenix, CL-46: to Argentina 10-51; sunk during
USS Raleigh, CL-7: sold for scrap 2-46
USS St. Louis, CL-49: to Brazil 1-51
USS Allen, DD-66: sold for scrap 9-46
USS Aylwin, DD-355: sold for scrap 12-46.
USS Bagley, DD-386: sold for scrap 10-47
USS Blue, DD-387: sunk off Guadalcanal 8-42
USS Case, DD-370: sold for scrap 12-47
USS Cassin, DD-372: sold for scrap 11-47
USS Chew, DD-106: sold for scrap 10-46
USS Conyngham, DD-371: sunk as target 7-48
USS Cummings, DD-365: sold for scrap 7-47
USS Dale, DD-353: sold for scrap 12-46
USS Dewey, DD-349: sold for scrap 12-46
USS Downes, DD-375: sold for scrap 11-47
USS Farragut, DD-348: sold for scrap 8-47
USS Helm, DD-388: sold for scrap 10-47
USS Henley, DD-391: sunk in Huron Gulf 10-43
USS Hull, DD-350: sunk by typhoon 12-44
USS Jarvis, DD-393: sunk off Guadalcanal 8-42
USS Macdonough, DD-351: sold for scrap 12-46
USS Monaghan, DD-354: sunk by typhoon 12-44
USS Mugford, DD-389: sunk off Kwajalein 3-48
USS Patterson, DD-392: sold for scrap 8-47
USS Phelps, DD-360: sold for scrap 8-47
USS Ralph Talbot, DD-390: sunk as target 3-48
USS Reid, DD-369: sunk off Leyte, PI 12-44
USS Schley, DD-103: scrapped 1946
USS Selfridge, DD-357: sold for scrap 11-46
USS Shaw, DD-373: sold for scrap 1946
USS Tucker, DD-374: sunk off Espiritu Santo 8-42
USS Ward, DD-139: sunk off Leyte 12-44
USS Worden, DD-352: sunk off Amchitka 1-43
USS Cachalot, SS-170: sold for scrap 1-47
USS Dolphin, SS-169: sold for scrap 8-46
USS Narwhal, SS-167: sold for scrap 11-45
USS Tautog, SS-199: sold for scrap 7-60
MINE WARFARE SHIPS (23)
USS Perry, DMS-17: sunk off Palau Is 9-44
USS Trever, DMS-16: sold for scrap 11-46
USS Wasmuth, DMS-15: sunk off Aleutian Is 12-42
USS Zane, DMS-14: sold for scrap 10-46
LIGHT MINELAYERS (8)
USS Breese, DM-18: sold for scrap 5-46
USS Gamble, DM-15: scuttled off Guam 7-45
USS Montgomery, DM-17: sold for scrap 3-46
USS Preble, DM-20: sold for scrap 10-46
USS Pruitt, DM-22: sold for scrap 1946
USS Ramsay, DM-16: sold for scrap 11-46
USS Sicard, DM-21: sold for scrap 6-46
USS Tracy, DM-19: sold for scrap 1946
USS Oglala, CM-4: to Maritime Commission 7-46
USS Bobolink, AM-20: sold 10-46
USS Grebe, AM-43: destroyed by hurricane 1-43
USS Rail, AM-26: to Maritime Commission 1-47
USS Tern, AM-31: sold 7-47
USS Turkey, AM-13: sold 12-46
USS Vireo, AM-52: to Maritime Commission 2-47
MINESWEEPERS, COASTAL (4)
Cockatoo, AMc-8: to Maritime Commission 9-46
Condor, AMc-14: to Maritime Commission 7-46
Crossbill, AMc-9: to Maritime Commission 3-47
Reedbird, AMc-30: to Maritime Commission 11-46
PATROL SHIPS (13)
USS Sacramento, PG-19: sold 8-47
MOTOR TORPEDO BOATS (12)
PT-20: stricken for obsolescence, 12-44.
PT-21: stricken for obsolescence, 10-43.
PT-22: badly damaged in storm, 1-43; scrapped.
PT-23: reclassified as small boat, 10-43.
PT-24: reclassified as small boat, 12-44.
PT-25: reclassified as small boat, 10-43.
PT-26: reclassified as small boat, 10-43.
PT-27: reclassified as small boat, 12-44.
PT-28: wrecked in storm, 1-43.
PT-29: stricken for obsolescence, 12-44.
PT-30: stricken for obsolescence, 3-44.
PT-42: stricken for obsolescence, 12-44.
AUXILIARY SHIPS (28)
USS Pyro, AE-1: sold for scrap 3-50
CARGO SHIP (1)
USS Vega, AK-17: sold for scrap 8-46
DESTROYER TENDERS (2)
USS Dobbin, AD-3: sold 1951
USS Whitney, AD-4: sold for scrap 3-48
GENERAL STORES ISSUE SHIPS (2)
USS Antares, AKS-3: sold 1947
USS Castor, AKS-1: sold 12-68
HOSPITAL SHIP (1)
USS Solace, AH-5: sold 1948
MISCELLANEOUS AUXILIARIES (3)
USS Argonne, AG-31: sold 1951
USS Sumner, AG-32: to Maritime Commission 9-46
USS Utah, AG-16: capsized 7 Dec 41; remains a partially
submerged hulk off Ford Island, Pearl Harbor.
OCEAN-GOING TUGS (4)
USS Keosangua, AT-38: sold 7-47
USS Navajo, AT-64: sunk east of New Hebrides 9-43
USS Ontario, AT-13: sold 4-47
USS Sunnadin, AT-28: to Maritime Commission 1-47
USS Neosho, AO-23: sunk in Coral Sea 5-42
USS Ramapo, AO-12: to Maritime Commission 7-46
REPAIR SHIPS (3)
USS Medusa, AR-1: sold for scrap 8-50
USS Rigel, AR-11: sold 1950
USS Vestal, AR-4: sold for scrap 7-50
SEAPLANE TENDERS (2)
USS Curtiss, AV-4: sold 1-72
USS Tangier, AV-8: sold for scrap 7-61
SEAPLANE TENDERS, DESTROYER (2)
USS Hulbert, AVD-6: sold for scrap 10-46
USS Thornton, AVD-11: beached and abandoned off
SMALL SEAPLANE TENDERS (2)
USS Avocet, AVP-4: sold 12-46
USS Swan, AVP-7: to Maritime Commission 10-46
SUBMARINE RESCUE VESSEL (1)
USS Widgeon, ASR-1: sold for scrap 1948
SUBMARINE TENDER (1)
USS Pelias, AS-14: sold 1971
UNCLASSIFIED MISCELLANEOUS (1)
Chengho, IX-52: returned to owner 1946
SERVICE CRAFT (27)
Manuwai, YFB-17: struck 9-54
FUEL OIL BARGES (4)
GARBAGE LIGHTERS (3)
GATE VESSEL (1)
HARBOR TUGS (8)
Hoga, YT-146: leased to Oakland, California 1973-75
Nokomis, YT-142: sold 1973
Osceola, YT-129: sold 1973
Sotoyomo, YT-9: destroyed 2-46
MOTOR TUG (1)
NET TENDERS, BOOM (5)
Ash, YN-2: sold 1962
Cinchona, YN-7: sold 1962
Cockenoe, YN-47: to Maritime Commission 7-47
Marin, YN-53: to Maritime Commission 3-47
TORPEDO TESTING BARGE (1)
WATER BARGE (1)
COAST GUARD VESSELS (4)
CRUISING CUTTERS (3)
USCGC Reliance, 150: sold 6-48
Taney, 68: struck 12-86. Now in Baltimore,
Maryland Maritime Musuem
USCGC Tiger, 152: sold 1948
Information compiled and provided
by Jack McKillop.
Brochure listing all the ships that
were in PH during the attack supplemented
with information from various volumes of :
Naval History Division, US Navy Department
: DICTIONARY OF
AMERICAN NAVAL FIGHTING SHIPS. Washington, DC: US Government
Printing Office, 1959-1981.
071700Z DEC 98
U.S. COAST GUARD "SEAL'S" ---"Frog Men"----"OSS"---"Operational Swimmers"
In Florence, Oregon I (Web master Vern Toler) run across a former Coast
Guard Veteran, a Mr.
Mac Donald, in my age bracket, who had a interesting
story on Coast Guard history that needs to be recorded. He was a Native
American from the Piaute Tribe of Owens Valley, California. (Interesting
sides note his grandfather was the Sheriff during the dispute over the
Los Angeles Water war's.) He was sent to Catalina Island, California, where
he received and conducted underwater training, and then to Missoula (MO?)
for Parachute Training with the Smoke jumpers. They used Silk round parachutes
with "Derry Slots" for control. They were latter were assigned to O.S.S.
units in the Pacific. His main concern is that the U.S. Coast Guard historians
he contacted did not know of the Coast Guard involvement in the UDT. He
had many articles to support his stories of which I will put a few parts
in this story and try to create a separate web page other memories so they
will not be lost. From page 41, unknown publication, by Brian; Danis, The
OSS Operational Swimmer. "Faced with a wartime shortage of personnel, the
O.S.S. obtained the majority of its manpower from the United States Army,
Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps." "From November 1943 to October of
1944 over 70 personnel were trained as OSS Operational Swimmers. Preliminary
training was conducted at the OSS West Coast Training Center at Camp Pentiloneton
and Catalina Island, CA."" (Page 42) "Today's' Special Operational Forces
can take a lesson in joint operations from the Soldiers, Sailors, Coast
Guardsmen, Marines and Airmen who served in the Operational Swimmer Groups.
They were dedicated men with unique skills. They pioneered a unique capability
which for one brief moment in time. Was theirs and theirs alone." (the
article also contained a list of several training groups of which half
were Coast guardsmen which I will put in another web page with a link when
I am able s/vern toler)
From Memo to Bob Weaver from Jack Demmons, Dated June 2nd 1993. #3 "1943 again there was parachute training of rescue units form the military services involving about 25 individuals of the U.S. Coast Guard, Canadian Air Observer Schools and the Army Air Forces." # 11 Missoula Sentinel 9/20/43 Coast Guardsmen, New Jumpers, Back to Alaska. Art Cook and his crew of ten … had jumped in the Blackfoot country (at Seeley Lake). " #16 Missoula Sentinel. 8-30-43 Rescue Squad to Inaugurate Chute Training. The Coast Guard rescue squad…. Is to train at Seeley Lake as parachute jumpers under the Forest service…"
A link has been created "Military memories" for additional information and a roster of some of the early "Underwater Operations" teams.
note: The OSS was the forrunner to the CIA so the history of
the military men attached to the OSS will be difficult to find, expect
for stories from some of the men involved. s/vern
It is unknown when the USCG adopted the motto "Always Ready". The first
known connection of the phrase
with the USCG came during the Civil War and was published in the 26 November 1864 issue of the Army and
Navy Journal. The achievements of the Revenue Cutter Service was praised with the following sentence --
"Keeping always under steam and ever ready, in the event of extraordinary need, to render valuable service,
the Cutters can be made to form a Coast Guard whose value it is impossible at the present time to estimate."
The motto also appeared on the official stationary of Captain Charles F. Shoemaker, Chief of the Revenue
Cutter Service, on 5 May 1897.
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