ANITKABIR (Ataturk Mausoleum): Located in an imposing position in the Anittepe quarter of the city stands the Mausoleum of Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Turkish Republic. Completed in 1953, it is an impressive fusion of ancient and modern architectural ideas and remains unsurpassed as an accomplishment of modern Turkish architecture. There is a museum housing writings, letters and items belonging to Ataturk as well as an exhibition of photographs recording important moments in his life and the establishment of the republic. (Anitkabir and the museum is open everyday, except Mondays. During the summer, there is a light and sound show in the evenings).


The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations : Close to the citadel gate an old bedesten has been beautifully restored and now houses a marvelous and unique collection including Paleolithic, Neolithic, Hatti, Hittite, Phrygian, Urartian and Roman works. (Open everyday, except Monday. During the summer, the museum opens everyday).

The Ethnographical Museum : Opposite the Opera House on Talat Pasa Boulevard is the Ethnographical Museum. There is a fine collection of folkloric artifacts as well as fine items from Seljuk and Ottoman mosques. (Open everyday, except Monday).

The Painting and Sculpture Museum : This museum is close to the Ethnographical Museum and houses a fine collection of Turkish art from the late 19th century to the present day. There are also galleries for visiting exhibitions. (Open everyday, except Monday).

The Museum of Liberation : The museum is close to Ulus Square in a building that was originally the first parliament building of the Turkish Republic. The War of Liberation was planned from here and the photographs and items of the exhibition record that period. (Open everyday, except Monday).

The Museum of the Republic : Housed in the second parliament building of the Republic, close to the Museum of Liberation, the exhibition here records important events in the early days of the Republic. (Open everyday, except Monday).

Ataturk's House : This museum is in the grounds of the Presidential Palace in Cankaya and was Ataturk's house after the founding of the Republic. The house is much as it was in Ataturk's day, with additional photographs recording important events. (Open Sundays, Religious and National Holidays, 1.30 p.m. to 5 p.m.).

The Natural History Museum : This museum can be found in the grounds of the MTA (Mineral Research and Exploration Institute) on the Eskisehir road from Ankara. The displays record the natural development of the world. (Open everyday).

The Ankara Citadel : The foundations of the citadel were laid by the Galatians on a prominent lava outcrop, and completed by the Romans; the Byzantines and Seljuks made restorations and additions. The area around and inside the citadel is the oldest part of Ankara and many fine examples of traditional architecture can be seen within the citadel walls. There are also lovely green areas in which to relax.

The Temple of Augusts : The temple can be found in the Ulus quarter of the city. It was built in the 2nd century BC and only later dedicated to the Emperor Augustus. It is important today for the 'Monument Ancyranum', the testament of Augustus that is inscribed on its walls in Latin and Greek. In the fifth century the temple was converted to a church.

The Roman Bath : The bath, situated on Cankiri Avenue in Ulus, has the typical features of Roman baths: a frigidarium (cold section), tepidarium (cool section) and caldarium (hot section). They were built in the time of the Emperor Caracalla (3rd century AD) in honour of the god of medicine, Asclepios. Today only the basement and first floors remain.

The Column of Julian : This column, in Ulus, was erected in 362 AD probably to commemorate a visit by the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate. It stands fifteen meters high and has a typical leaf decoration on the capital.


Monument of the Republic : Erected in 1927, in Ulus Square, as a symbol of Atatürk's and the Turkish people's struggle for independence in the War of Liberation.

The Monument to a Secure Confident Future : This monument, in Güven Park, was erected in 1935 and bears Atatürk's words to his people: "Be proud, hardworking, and believe in yourself."

Victory Monument : Erected in 1927, on Zafer Square in the Sihhiye quater, it shows Atatürk in uniform.

The Hatti Monument : Recently erected in Sihhiye Square this impressive monument shows a Hatti symbol and commemorates Anatolia's first known people.


Haci Bayram Mosque : This mosque, in Ulus, next to the Temple of Augustus, was built in the early 15th century and subsequently restored by Sinan in the l6th century with Kütahya tiles being added in the 18th century. The mosque was built in honour of Haci Bayram Veli whose tomb is next to the mosque.

Aslanhane Mosque : This mosque, near to the citadel, was built in the 13th century. The mosque has a mihrap (prayer niche) of Seljuk tiles, and, unusually, a double colonnade of wooden columns. Next to the mosque is the tomb of Ahi Serafeddin.

Ahi Elvan Mosque : Found in the Ulus quarter near to the Citadel this mosque was built and finished during the late l4th and early l5th century. The finely carved walnut mimber (pulpit) is of particular interest.

Alaaddin Mosque : This mosque is inside the Citadel walls. It has a carved walnut mimber the inscription on which records that the mosque was built in the 12th century by the Seljuk ruler, Mesud.

Yeni (Cenab Ahmed) Mosque : This is the largest Ottoman mosque in Ankara and was built by the famous architect Sinan in the l6th century.The mimber (pulpit) and mihrap (prayer niche) are of white marble, and the mosque itself is of Ankara stone (red porphyry) of very fine workmanship. Yeni Cami is on Ulucanlar Avenue.

Kocatepe Mosque : This is a recently constructed mosque of great size in classical Ottoman design with four minarets. Built between 1967 and 1987 in the Kocatepe quarter its size and prominent situation have made it something of a landmark.


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Melih Özbek