Ingredients       Measure      Amount
For filling:
                       Ground meat       1 1/4 cups    250 g
                       Onions            4 large size  440 g
                       Butter or
                        margarine        2 tablespoons  30 g
                       Salt              1 teaspoon      6 g
                       Walnuts (chopped) 1/2 cup        50 g
                        (chopped)        1/2 cup        55 g
                       Black pepper      1/2 teaspoon    1 g
                       Red pepper        1/2 teaspoon    1 g
                       Allspice          1/2 teaspoon    1 g
                        (optional)       1/4 teaspoon  0.5 g
                        (optional)       1/4 teaspoon  0.5 g
For basic broth and mixture:
                       Lean ground
                             meat          1 3/4 cups  400 g
                       Bulgur (fine)           5 cups  800 g
                       Onions            2 large size  220 g
                       Potato           1 medium size  125 g
                       Semolina               1/4 cup   25 g
                       Salt               3 teaspoons   12 g
                       Black pepper        1 teaspoon    2 g
                       Red pepper         2 teaspoons    4 g
                       Water                  1/4 cup   60 g
                       Butter or
                        margarine             1/3 cup   75 g


To prepare filling: Saute' ground meat and finely chopped onions in margarine tor 20-25 minutes until meat is light brown and crumbly; drain and cool. Add rest of ingredients, stirring thoroughly. Chill and set aside.

To prepare shells: Combine ground meat, bulgur, minced onions, precooked and mashed potato, and rest of ingredients except water and butter blending thoroughly. Knead for 25-30 minutes while adding 1/4 cup of water gradually to form a medium stiff, smooth and slightly elastic mixture (or place combined mixture into a blender or a food processor container. Add water. Process until well blended. Mixture must be smooth and slightly elastic to roll and form easily). And very little water if necessary. Shape into a large ball. Place in a bowl. Cover with a slightly dampened cheesecloth to prevent drying. Keep covered while shaping koftes. Shape into egg sized balls. Hold one ball in left hand. Make a hole in center of ball with lightly wetted index finger of right hand while turning ball around finger and pressing slightly to form a 2 mm thick shell. Fill each shell with 1 tablespoon of filling. Bring edges together sealing well. Smooth surface, tapering slightly both ends. Shells must be firm, and unbroken. Arrange in a steamer or a colander. Place over gently boiling water. Cover and steam for 20-25 minutes. Remove from heat. Cool slightly. Melt butter in a large skillet. Place steamed koftes into skillet. Saute' over low heat shaking slightly and occasionally. Serve hot.

6 servings

Nutritive Value (Approx. per serving):

             Energy ........:    868  cal  Sodium ..........:  1231 mg
             Protein .......:   39.8    g  Vitamin A .......:   146 iu
             Fat ...........:   26.0    g  Thiamin (Bl) ....:  0.69 mg
             Carbohydrate ..:  122.6    g  Riboflavin (B2)..:  0.48 mg
             Calcium .......:    114   mg  Niacin...........: 13.27 mg
             Iron ..........:    11.39 mg  Vitamin C .......:    13 mg
             Phosphorus.....:      736 mg
             Zinc ..........:        7 mg  Cholesterol .....:    98 mg
Regional characteristics:

The recipe comes from Gaziantep. However, this dish is very well known thoroughout the country. Icli Kofte making is a time consuming process. It also requires experience and a well-developed hand manupulation. Therefore good home makers are judged by their success in making firm, smooth and attractively shaped koftes. In old days the basic mixture was prepared with only ground meat, fine bulgur, onions and spices. Nowadays some other ingredients, such as boiled potatoes, or egg, semolina or flour are included in the recipe in order to form shells easily and successfully. Instead of steaming, koftes can be deep fried in oil and drained on paper towel or steamed koftes can be deep fried instead of sauteeing. This dish is prepared for guests on special days. It is always served with soup.