|Low Cost Function Generator
This was a design that we were going to do when time permitted
Design beat us to it. So, instead of reinventing the wheel, we
present you with their implementation.
by Ken Levine
Pacific Systems, 2838 67th Ave. SE, Mercer Island, WA 98040;
(206) 236-2832; e-mail: email@example.com
This low-cost function generator, based on the Maxim MAX038
high-frequency waveform generator, produces sine, triangle, and
square waves from under 1 Hz to over 20 MHz (See figure
Below). The frequency, amplitude, and offset of all output
waveforms are adjustable, as is the duty cycle of the square wave.
Frequency adjustment is accomplished with a capacitor bank and
a variable resistor. Amplitude, offset, and duty-cycle adjustments
are performed via variable resistors. Switches S2 and S3 select
the waveform type to be generated. The frequency range is chosen
using one of 12 capacitors, C2-C13, via switch S4. Resistor R16 is
for fine-tuning. The fADJ pin of U1 is tied to ground
through a 12k resistor, so the frequency of the waveform at U1-19
is f = 2(IIN/CF), where IIN = VREF/R,
R is the sum of R7 and R16, and VREF = 2.5 V. The
values of C2-C13, R16, and R7 were chosen to provide
frequency-range overlap. Table 1 shows the frequency range for
each capacitor value.
The output at U1-19 is 2 V p-p, centered around zero, for all
waveforms. For amplitude adjustment, R18 and R9 form a voltage
divider. The portion of U1-19 fed to the summing amplifier U3
varies from 0.74% to 100%. The summing amplifier multiplies this
voltage by -12.2, so the signal at U3-6 will vary from 0.18 V p-p
to 24.4 V p-p.
The offset voltage is controlled by resistor R15. This voltage
is fed to the summing amplifier, where it's added directly (the
gain through the summing amp is 1) to the waveform voltage.
Resistors R1 and R2 force the variation in the offset voltage to
be within 13.6 V to +13.6 V to prevent the unity-gain buffer
amplifier from being overdriven.
Duty-cycle adjustment is controlled by resistor R17. The +2.5-V
reference voltage of U1 is passed through a unity-gain inverter to
R5. R5, R17, and R6 (which is tied to the +2.5-V reference
voltage) form a voltage divider. The voltage developed across R17
varies from 2.3 V to +2.3 V. It first goes through a unity-gain
buffer, then to the DADJ pin of U1. This ensures that
the voltage at DADJ falls within the operating limits
of 2.3 V to +2.3 V.
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