Notes on Kabbalah 

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Release 2.0      
Copy date: 15th. January 1992

Copyright Colin Low 1992 (cal@hplb.hpl.hp.com)


Chapter 4: The Sephiroth (continued)
     This  chapter  provides a detailed look at each of  the  ten 
sephiroth  and  draws together material scattered  over  previous 

Gevurah and Chesed

     "The chief foundations of all states,  new as well as old or 
     mixed, are good laws and good arms; and because there cannot 
     be good laws where there are not good arms,  and where there 
     are  good arms there must needs be good laws,  I  will  omit 
     speaking  of the laws and speak of the arms."

     "God  is  the great urge that has not yet found a  body  
      but urges towards incarnation with the great creative urge."
                                             D.H. Lawrence

     The   title  of  the  sephira  Gevurah  is   translated   as 
"strength",  and  sometimes  as  "power".  The  sephira  is  also 
referred  to by its alternative titles  of  Din,  "justice",  and 
Pachad,  "fear". The title of the sephira Chesed is translated as 
"mercy" or "love",  and it is often called Gedulah,  "majesty" or 
"magnificence". Gevurah and Chesed lie on the Pillars of Form and 
Force  respectively,  and possess a more definite  and  generally 
agreed  symbolism  than any other sephiroth:  Chesed  stands  for 
expansiveness and the creation and building-up of form,  what can 
very  appropriately  be referred to  as  anabolism,  and  Gevurah 
stands for restraint and both the preservation of form,  and  the 
breaking-down (or catabolism) of form.       
     Within  the symbolism of the Kabbalah the most explicit  and 
concrete  expression  of form occurs  in  Malkuth,  the  physical 
world,  and as it takes a conscious being (e.g.  thee and me)  to 
comprehend  the  world in terms of forms which are  built-up  and 
broken down,  so Chesed and Gevurah express something vital about 
our  conscious relationship with the  external,  material  world. 
When  I  see something beautiful being created I may  well  think 
this  is  "good",  but when I see the same thing  being  wantonly 
destroyed, I would probably think this is "bad", and this type of 
thinking pervades early Kabbalistic writing. In his commentary on 
"The Bahir", Aryeh Kaplan writes [1]:

     "The concept of Chesed-Love is that of freely giving,  while 
     that  of Gevurah-Strength is that of restraint.  When it  is 
     said that Strength is restraint,  it is in the sense of  the 
     teaching "Who is strong,  he who restrains his urge".  It is 
     obvious that man can restrain his nature,  but if man can do 
     so,  then God certainly can. God's nature, however, is to do 
     good and therefore, when He restrains His nature, the result 
     is evil.  The sephira of Gevurah-Strength is therefore  seen 
     as the source of evil."

The  Zohar  also  contains  many  references  to  the   "rigorous 
severity" of God (another synonym for Gevurah) and its being  the 
source of evil in the creation.  However, when one considers that 
the creation and uncontrolled growth of a cancer would correspond 
to Chesed,  and the attempts of the immune system to contain  and 
destroy it would correspond to Gevurah,  it should be clear  that 
it is not useful to consider creation and destruction in terms of 
good and evil. It *is* useful to look at a living, organic system 
as  a  *balance* between these two opposed  tendencies,  and  the 
manifest  Creation in Kabbalah is very definitely pictured  as  a 
living, organic system (i.e. a Tree of Life).
     The most vivid metaphors for Chesed and Gevurah come from  a 
time when European societies were ruled by kings and queens, when 
(in  principle  at  least) the ultimate authority  and  power  in 
society rested in a single individual.  Chesed corresponds to the 
creative aspects of leadership,  and early texts are one-sided in 
characterising  this  by  love,   mercy  and   majesty.   Gevurah 
corresponds  to the conservative aspects of  leadership,  to  the 
power  to  preserve  the status-quo,  and the  power  to  destroy 
anything opposed to it.  These two aspects go hand-in-hand -  try 
to  change anything of consequence in society,  and someone  will 
invariably oppose that change.  To bring about change it is often 
necessary to have the power to over-rule opposition. Consensus is 
an impossibility in society - there will always be someone  whose 
opinions are at best ignored and at worst suppressed - and Chesed 
and Gevurah represent respectively the kingly obligation to  seek 
what  is good for the many (enlightened leadership  of  course!), 
and  the power to judge and punish those opposed to the  will  of 
the  king.  The following description of Margaret Thatcher  comes 
from Nicholas Ridley, a minister in her cabinet [2]:

     "She governed with superb style, carrying every war into the 
     enemy's  camp,  seeking to destroy rather than  contain  the 
     opposition, and determined to blaze a radical trail. But she 
     never  let power corrupt her;  nor did she ever fail  to  be 
     compassionate and kind as a human being."

Whether  this  description is accurate or not  is  irrelevant  to 
this  discussion;  what  it does do is capture in  two  sentences 
something  essential about a leader,  the balance between  power, 
strength  and  militancy  on  one  hand,   and   humanitarianism, 
compassion and caring on the other.  This is very much a model of 
divine kingship (or queenship!):  a king who loves and cares  for 
his people and seeks to bring about "heaven on earth", but at the 
same  time punishes transgression,  and fights for and  preserves 
what is good and worth preserving.  Kabbalists thought of God  in 
this way:  God loves us (so the argument goes), and the mercy and 
benignity of God is represented by the sephira Chesed, but at the 
same time God has made his laws known to humankind and will judge 
and  punish  anyone  who opposes these laws.  Read  the  book  of 
Proverbs  in  the Bible if you want to enter into  this  view  of 
     Many  modern  Kabbalists  have  a  more  jaundiced  view  of 
leadership  than medieval Kabbalists,  and certainly do  not  see 
Chesed  as  purely the love or mercy of  God.  In  the  twentieth 
century  we  have  seen a succession  of  leaders  harness  their 
vision,  creativity  and leadership to the four Vices of  Chesed, 
which are tyranny,  bigotry,  hypocrisy and gluttony. It takes an 
uncommon   skill   and  vision  not  only  to   contemplate   the 
annihilation of entire races,  but to create a structure in which 
it happens. And how many people would dream of a socialist utopia 
where traditional communities are forcibly bulldozed and replaced 
by dilapidated concrete slums,  and have the power to bring  this 
about?  You may not like this kind of leadership, but it is still 
leadership,  and in its own way it is inspired.  A leader may  be 
inspired by a vision, and may have the power to bring that vision 
into  reality,  but  it is unfortunately also the case  that  the 
result can become a new definition of evil. Good and evil are not 
static qualities with fixed meanings;  in every generation  there 
are exemplars who define for the whole of society the meaning  of 
the words in new contexts. Tamerlane may have built pyramids from 
skulls, but what did he know about asset stripping?      
     Tyranny,  bigotry,  hypocricy  and gluttony,  the  vices  of 
Chesed,  are the meat and drink of daily newspapers.  Tyranny  is 
leadership without authority, an illegitimate or unconstitutional 
leadership usually oiled with large helpings of cruelty, the Vice 
of  Gevurah.  Bigotry is a quick and easy way to drum up a  power 
base:  find a minority group in society, emphasise and magnify to 
grotesque  proportions the differences between them and the  rest 
of society, and use the natural fear of the strange or unfamiliar 
to do the rest.  Hypocrisy can be found in religious leaders  who 
denounce normal human behaviour as a sin,  sin comprehensively in 
private,  and  use genuine religious aspirations as in excuse  to 
line their pockets.  It can be found in those who talk about  the 
dictatorship  of the proletariat in public and buy  their  luxury 
goods  from  exclusive  party  shops  -  the  collapse  of  state 
socialism in Europe has revealed to those who didn't already know 
it  the  full  extent  to which  pious  utterances  about  social 
equality  were  a cover for almost limitless privileges  for  the 
few.  Gluttony is over-consumption, an appetite well in excess of 
need,  and  one has only to remember Imelda Marcos's wardrobe  to 
get the idea.  It is virtually a fashion among modern tyrants  to 
siphon  billions of dollars into Swiss bank accounts - the  scale 
on  which  men like Idi Amin Dada,  Ferdinand  Marcos,  Baby  Doc 
Duvalier,  Mengistu,  and Saddam Hussein (to name but a few) were 
able  to beggar nations for their own personal advantage goes  so 
far  beyond  any  rational measure of human need it  is  hard  to 
     When one looks at the worst twentieth century  tyrants,  men 
who  were  directly responsible for the deaths  of  thousands  or 
millions  of people,  it is hard to find any Einsteins of evil  - 
one  is struck by the sheer ordinariness of  these  men.  Clever, 
manipulative,  politically  adept,  lucky,  exceptional in  their 
ability to climb to the top of the heap,  successful in  grasping 
and  holding  power,  but not conscious,  plotting  allies  of  a 
terrible  dark power.  Behind  the  brutality,  murder,  torture, 
imprisonment,  and the apparatus of oppression one can see a very 
human vulnerability,  self-importance, vanity, folly, insecurity, 
and  greed.  The vices of Chesed are the vices of all  the  other 
sephiroth writ large - power magnifies a vice until it becomes  a 
ravening monster.  A man with rigid and unbending views on  human 
morality  will  do no harm if he has no audience,  but  give  him 
enough power and he will put society in chains which might last a 
thousand  years.  A  greedy man with enough power might  loot  an 
entire  country.  A petty and irrational bigot with enough  power 
might enslave or annihilate whole races. They say power corrupts, 
but this is not so;  corruption is already within all of us,  and 
we lack only the necessary authority and power to unleash our own 
personal evil on the world.
     The  moral is that power needs to be tempered by  mercy  and 
love,  and  the  correspondences  for Chesed  emphasise  this  so 
strongly   it   is   easy  to  for  a  novice   to   ignore   the 
appalling negative qualities of Chesed - power without restraint, 
indiscriminate destruction,  everything in excess.  The Virtue of 
Chesed  is  humility,  the  ideal  of  leadership  without  self-
importance and all its accompanying vices.  The Spiritual  Vision 
of Chesed is the Vision of Love,  love and caring for all  living 
things,  and  the  desire to find a way (be it ever  so  small  - 
remember humility) to make the world a better place.  There is  a 
strong  message  in  the  positive  correspondences  for  Chesed: 
without  humility  and  love,  leadership and  power  become  the 
instruments  of  self-importance,  and the petty vices  of  human 
nature are transformed into the monsters of evil which  terrorise 
the human race.
     The  illusion  of Chesed is Right,  in the sense  of  "being 
right". It is difficult to lead without conviction, when one sits 
on every fence and wavers on every question,  but no-one is  ever 
right with a capital "R", and anyone who seeks the reassurance of 
Being Right is evading the essence of responsibility.
     The qlippoth of Chesed is ideology, not in the philosophical 
sense,  but in the common-use sense of "political ideology".  The 
rationale behind this is that it is very easy to take a creed, or 
a doctrine, or a dogma, or whatever, and use it as a platform for 
leadership.  If you see a politian (or a religious leader)  being 
interviewed on television,  and the response to every question is 
just the same old empty jargon,  the same old formulae,  the same 
old evasions,  the same old arguments and irrefutable assertions, 
and  you feel you have heard the same thing a dozen times  before 
out  of a dozen different mouths,  then this is the  dead,  empty 
shell of leadership. 

     The sephira Gevurah is as often misunderstood as the sephira 
Chesed.  The  planet  associated with Chesed  is  (appropriately) 
Tzedek,  Jupiter,  leader of the gods; the planet associated with 
Gevurah  is Madim,  Mars,  the god of war  and  destruction.  The 
magical image of Gevurah is a king in a chariot,  or conversely a 
mighty warrior.  Most novices take this imagery at face value and 
envision  Gevurah  as a very forceful,  violent  and  destructive 
sephira, and cannot understand why it is positioned on the pillar 
of form.  Almost all novices will (wrongly) attribute the emotion 
of anger to Gevurah.  It is worth recalling from Chapter  3.  the 
traditional Kabbalistic view [3]:

     "It must be remembered that to the Kabbalist, judgement [Din 
     -  judgement,  a title of Gevurah] means the  imposition  of 
     limits and the correct determination of things. According to 
     Cordovero the quality of judgement is inherent in everything 
     insofar as everything wishes to remain what it is,  to  stay 
     within its bounderies."

This  is  a  statement  about  *form*.   The  form  of  something 
determines what it *is*, in distinction from everything else, and 
when it no longer has that form,  it no longer *is*. Take a table 
tennis  ball  and  squash  it;  it stops  being  a  table  tennis 
ball...it  stops  being a ball.  Something still  exists  in  the 
world,  but its form *as a ball* has been destroyed.  Take  these 
notes and randomly jumble the letters;  the letters still  exist, 
but the notes are gone.  These notes are contained in the  *form* 
of the letters; destroy the form of the letters and the notes are 
also destroyed.      
     Everything  in the world *is* its form.  We cannot  see  the 
natural substance of the world;  we cannot see atoms, and even if 
we could,  we would see protons,  neutrons and electrons arranged 
in  different  *forms* to create the chemical  elements.  It  has 
taken physicists most of this century to deduce that the protons, 
neutrons and electrons are not the "true" stuff of the world, and 
underneath  there  might  be  "quarks",  "leptons"  and  "gluons" 
arranged   in  different  *forms*  to  create   the   fundamental 
particles.  Is  that  the end?  Are quarks and gluons  the  "true 
stuff",  the  raw,  primal gloop which carries all  form?  No-one 
knows. Sometimes I think, in common with the earliest Kabbalists, 
that Malkuth sits upon the throne of Binah,  and at no point will 
we  find  the raw gloop of Malkuth.  Someone will write  down  an 
equation  and  show  the properties of quarks and  gluons  are  a 
natural consequence of the *form* of the equation,  and the  form 
of the equation is one of those things beyond any possibility  of 
explanation.  "Look"  we will say,  "The form of all things is  a 
potential outcome of this one equation.  The mother of everything 
that exists can be written down on a piece of paper.  Look,  here 
it is!"
     There  is a deep mystery in form.  The world is made not  of 
things,  but of patterns.  In our minds we accept the reality  of 
these patterns,  and forget that the sweet, white stuff we put in 
our tea and coffee is just one of an infinite number of  patterns 
of  carbon,  hydrogen and oxygen.  Carbon is just one of a  large 
number of combinations of protons, neutrons and electrons, and so 
on.  We  forget that "War and Peace" is just one of  an  infinite 
number of combinations of letters of the alphabet.  The  patterns 
are our reality,  and I suspect that *only* the patterns are real 
-  there  is  nothing  more real  than  patterns  waiting  to  be 
discovered.  I have read graduate texts on quantum electrodynamics 
and  quantum chromodynamics,  and I find no grey gloop  mentioned 
anywhere.  These texts do not explain the world, but they predict 
it,  often with astonishing accuracy,  and something one does not 
find  is  a prediction that the world is founded  on  a  formless 
gloop.  As  a  programmer  I have built  realities  out  of  pure 
mathematical forms - sets,  functions,  containers - and  nowhere 
did  I  need any grey gloop;  my worlds were the  way  they  were 
because  the objects within them behaved the way  they  did,  and 
that  behaviour was simply the structure or form I  created.  The 
view  of reality in Wittgenstein's "Tractatus" [4] has  a  deeply 
Kabbalistic  (if one-sided) flavour,  the Vision of Splendour  of 
Hod in a distilled form:

     "If I know an object I also know all its possible occurences 
     in states of affairs.
     (Every one of these possibilities must be part of the nature 
     of the object).
     A new possibility cannot be discovered later.
     If  I  am  to know an object,  though I need  not  know  its 
     external   properties,   I  must  know  all   its   internal 
     If  all  objects  are  given,  then at  the  same  time  all 
     *possible* states of affairs are also given.
     Each thing is,  as it were, in a space of possible states of 
     Objects contain the possibility of all situations.
     The possibility of its occuring in states of affairs is  the 
     *form* of an object." (my italics)
     I have digressed this far into the nature of form because  I 
do  not  believe it is possible to understand  either  Chesed  or 
Gevurah in depth without understanding the importance of form  in 
Kabbalah,   and  when  talking  about  form  I  am  not  "talking 
mystical". Programmers work with form; they shape programs out of 
forms with the same inquisitive delight as a glassblower handling 
a blob of molten glass.  They talk about objects, and behaviours, 
and classify objects in hierarchies according to behaviour.  They 
*create* new objects with a given abstract behaviour;  they leave 
unwanted  objects  to be tidied up by  the  "garbage  collector". 
There  is  much more which can be said about this,  but  as  many 
people  are not programmers and most programmers do not admit  to 
being  Kabbalists,  I must leave this as a trail to be  followed. 
The important point is that when I talk about form I find similar 
thinking in chemistry,  physics,  computer science, and Kabbalah; 
the world of human beings is perceived in terms of form, and form 
is  created  and  destroyed.  That is  what  Chesed  and  Gevurah 
     The  sephira Binah is the mother of  form.  That  is,  Binah 
contains within her womb the potential of all form, just as woman 
in  the  abstract contains within her womb the potential  of  all 
babies.  The birth of form takes place in Chesed, and that is why 
Chesed  corresponds  to  the  visionary;   the  preservation  and 
destruction  of  form takes place in Gevurah,  and  that  is  why 
Gevurah corresponds to the warrior.
     In  most societies even a warrior takes second place to  the 
Law.  The Law comes first,  and the warrior swears to defend both 
the Law and the country.  This may sound a little idealistic, but 
if  one takes the trouble to listen to a few oaths of  allegiance 
(e.g.  British Police, British Army, Soviet Army) one should find 
that  the essence is to obey,  uphold and defend.  Nothing  about 
violence,  destruction, mayem or anger. The essence of Gevurah is 
to  uphold  and  defend - as  Cordovero  says,  "the  quality  of 
judgement is inherent in everything insofar as everything  wishes 
to  remain  what  it  is,  to  stay  within  its  bounderies". If 
Cordovero  had the jargon he might have talked about "the  immune 
system of God".  
     The  Virtues of Gevurah are courage and energy.  There is  a 
saying  among managers that "any fool can manage when things  are 
going well".  The acid test of management is to have the  courage 
to tackle,  and essentially destroy,  organisations (forms) which 
no longer work,  and to have the energy to keep going against the 
inevitable opposition.  The Vice of Gevurah is cruelty - power is 
seductive, and destruction can be pleasurable.
     The spiritual experience of Gevurah is the Vision of  Power, 
and the Illusion is invincibility.  I don't think these need  any 
     The  qlippoth of Gevurah is bureaucracy,  in the  common-use 
sense of a system of rules and procedures which has become an end 
in itself.  My most memorable experience was the time I went into 
a social security office to ask whether they could issue me  with 
a social security number.
     "You'll  have to take a ticket and wait," the  woman  behind 
the counter said.
     "But you only have to tell me yes or no," I protested.
     "You'll have to take a ticket and wait!" she snapped.
So  I took a ticket and waited for twenty minutes.  When my  turn 
came I asked the question again.
     "Can you issue me with a social security number here?"
     "No! Next please!"
This  is  probably  not  the best example of  the  dead  hand  of 
bureaucracy  at  work,   as  it  contains  a  certain  amount  of 
deliberate  cruelty,  but we have all encountered  endless  forms 
which *have* to be filled in,  pointless procedures which  *have* 
to  be observed,  interminable delays and so on.  The essence  of 
bureaucracy is that there is real power behind it,  otherwise  we 
wouldn't suffer the indignities,  but the power is locked up  and 
everyone is rendered impotent by the *forms* of bureaucracy.
     Gevurah  is  a hard sephirah to work  with,  as  Kabbalistic 
magicians  often discover to their cost.  There is absolutely  no 
place for emotion,  no place for excess,  no place for  ego.  The 
warrior works within the Law,  and ignorance of the Law is not an 
excuse.  If  you  don't know what the Law  is,  don't  work  with 
Gevurah.  Most people are sloppy in thinking about problems,  and 
take  what  appears  to be the simplest  and  superficially  most 
convenient  solution.  Gevurah is clinically exact,  and  if  you 
invoke Gevurah you are invoking well above the level of  emotion, 
particularly *your* emotions,  and as you judge,  so will you  be 
judged.  Invoke on the Pillar of Form,  and cause and effect will 
follow without the slightest regard for your feelings.  All  good 
programmers  who  have  sweated  throughout  the  night  with   a 
programming error of their own making know this in their bones. 

     Associated with Chesed and Gevurah are two tendencies  which 
are  so pronounced,  readily observed,  and deeply rooted that  I 
have called them the Power myth and the Annihilation myth,  where 
I  use  the word myth in the sense that  there  is  pre-existent, 
archtypal   script  in  which  anyone  can  play  the   role   of 
     The  Power  myth  features a  protagonist  who  seeks  power 
because  power  means  control.   Everything  is  specified   and 
controlled   down  to  the  finest  detail  to  eliminate   every 
possibility  of discomfort,  surprise or  insecurity.  The  world 
becomes  an  impersonal mechanism designed to provide  for  every 
demand.   The   natural   world  is  destroyed  to   reduce   its 
unpredictability  and untidyness.  All knowledge is subverted  to 
control.  Personal relationships are restricted and formalised to 
minimise intrusion or any possibility of personal hurt,  and  are 
modelled to increase self-importance.  Anyone who won't play  can 
be  removed or suitably punished.  The protagonist lives  at  the 
centre of the world.
     In  the  Annihilation  myth the protagonist  lives  for  the 
Cause.  The  Cause  is  the most important  thing  in  life.  The 
protagonist prays to be released from the thrall of ego and self-
importance that he may better serve the Cause with every atom  of 
his  soul.  "Yea,  I am nothing",  he whispers,  "Less  than  the 
smallest worm in the ground compared with the glory of the Cause. 
I  humble  myself  before the Cause.  I live only  to  serve  the 
Cause."  Pain,  suffering and death are mere adornments  for  the 
ever-lasting glory of the Cause.  The Cause might be the Beloved, 
the Revolution,  the Great Work,  the Mistress or Master,  or God 
(to name only a few).
     Examples  of both these myths in practice  are  legion;  two 
examples  are  the package-holiday tourist as an example  of  the 
Power  myth,  and  many Christian mystics as an  example  of  the 
Annihilation  myth.  Both  myths  can be  observed  in  glorious, 
infinitely repetitive, and predictable detail in S&M fantasies.
     The  God name associated with Chesed is  "El",  or  Almighty 
God.  The archangel is Tzadkiel,  the "Righteousness of God". The 
angel  order  is the Chashmalim,  or Shining  Ones.  In  Ezekiel, 
Chashmal  is  a  substance which forms  the  splendour  of  God's 
countenance,  and  as  chashmal  is the modern  Hebrew  word  for 
electricity, I find it useful to think of the Chashmalim in terms 
of  crackling  thunderbolts  -  it goes  well  with  the  Jupiter 
     The  God name associated with Gevurah is Elohim  Gevor.  All 
the  sephiroth  on  the Pillar of Form use Elohim  in  their  God 
names,  and in this case it is qualified by "gevor", a word which 
expresses  the  qualities  of a great  hero  -  strength,  might, 
and  courage.  The  name  is  sometimes  translated  as  "God  of 
Battles".  The  archangel is is sometimes given  as  Kamiel,  and 
sometimes as Samael. Samael, the "Poison of God" is an angel with 
a  *long*  history - see [5],  and is essentially  the  Angel  of 
Death.  Samael  is not the first choice of angel to  invoke  when 
working Gevurah - work on Gevurah is tricky at the best of times, 
and the Angel of Death does not mess around.  Neither does Kamiel 
(which  I have been told means "sword of God" - I cannot  confirm 
this), but there is marginally more scope for interpretation! The 
angel order is the Seraphim, or Fiery Serpents.

     Chesed  and  Gevurah are the sceptre and sword  of  a  king; 
there  are many statues of medieval kings in  British  cathedrals 
which show a king seated with the sceptre of legitimate authority 
in  one  hand and the sword of temporal might in  the  other.  In 
Kabbalah the King corresponds to the sephira Tiphereth, the union 
of  Chesed  and Gevurah.  This is a symbol of a  human  being  in 
relationship  to the world - at the bottom of all initiations  is 
the  full  consciousness that we are kings and  queens  with  the 
freedom   and  power  to  do  anything  we  please,   and   total 
responsibility   for  the  consequences  of  everything  we   do. 
Somewhere  between the extremes of power and love each one of  us 
has to find our own balance,  and somewhere in a garden a Tree of 
Knowledge of Good and Evil still grows, and still bears fruit.

[1]  Kaplan, Aryeh, "The Bahir", Samuel Weiser 1979

[2]  Ridley,  Nicholas,  "My  Style of Government:  The  Thatcher 
                          Years" Hutchinson 1991

[3]  Scholem,  Gershom  G.,  "Major Trends in Jewish  Mysticism", 
                              Schocken 1974

[4]  Wittgenstein,   Ludwig,   "Tractatus  Logico-Philosophicus", 
                                Routledge 1974

[5]  Graves,  R.,  and  Patai,  R.,  "Hebrew Myths:  The Book  of 
                                      Genesis", Arena, 1989

Copyright Colin Low 1991

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